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Dr. Yahya Ali Yahya Al Midwahi is the first Emirati Ophthalmologist, a Consultant Ophthalmologist, and the Co-founder and Chairman of Samaya Specialized Center's Board of Directors. He served as the Medical Director and Head of Eye Department from 1984 to 2008 of Mafraq Hospital's and is a member of its Appointment and Evaluation Committee. He is a member of the Arab Board of Health Specializations, American Academy of Ophthalmology and European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeries. He is a life member of the American Medical Society of Vienna and a member and UAE representative for the Arab Council of Scientific Specialties and under the Ministry of Health, he is a Chairman of the Ophthalmic Committee, member of its Medical Board and member of its Drugs Committee.

WHAT IS DRY EYE?

Dry Eye or Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface which is a common complaint among middle-aged and older adults, with increased prevalence in patients with autoimmune disease. It also affect post-menopausal women and the elderly. It commonly occurs after an episode of viral keratoconjunctivitis or severe acute or subacute conjunctivitis.

WHAT CAUSES DRY EYE?

Increased tear evaporation (70% of UAE's population is known to be affected) Decreased tear production (30% of UAE's population is known to be affected)

AGGRAVATING CAUSES AND FACTORS FOR DRY EYE

· due to aging, medical conditions, medications and corneal nerve desensitivity

· due to posterior blepharitis

· due to less frequency of blinking

· due to eyelid problems and eye allergies

· due to topical eyedrops preservatives

· due to environment's condition (wind, smoke, air, climate, etc.; common in the UAE)

· due to Vitamin A deficiency (low in Vitamin A diet)

· due to entropion (turning in of the eyelids), ectropion (turning outward of the eyelids)

· due to computer screen time, reading, and other activities that reduces blinking

· due to the wearing of contact lenses and refractive surgery such as LASIK

RISK FACTORS

· Being older than 50 years of age due to the diminished tear production

· Being a woman due to hormonal changes

· Low in Vitamin A diet

· Contact lenses wearing

· History of refractive surgery

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

· Stinging, burning, scratchy, and something in the eyes types of sensation

· Stingy mucus around or inside the eyes

· Light sensitivity

· Eye redness

· Contact lens wearing difficulty

· Night time driving difficulty

· Watery eyes

· Blurred vision

· Eye fatigue

MANAGEMENT

· Lubrication drops and ointment

· Anti-inflammatory drops for severe cases Prescription of methamphetamine, multivitamins (Vitamin A, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, etc.), anti-

· inflammatory, mental blocks Punctal plugs

References:

Bik, D., Mati?, S., Bara?, J., Jeli? Vkovi?, M., Bik, E., & Mati?, M. (2013). Chalazion management–surgical treatment versus triamcinolone application. Collegium antropologicum, 37(1), 247-

250.

Mustafa, T. A., & Oriafage, I. H. (2001). Three methods of treatment of chalazia in children. Saudi Med J, 22(11), 968-72.

Gupta, I., Sood, R., Sri, J., & Bhardwaj, S. (2021). Clinicopathological Evaluation Of Eyelid Lesions-A Clinical Study. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine, 7(8), 3655-3660.